Many chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and PCOS have a common underlying problem with the body’s ability to listen to the hormone insulin — this is called insulin resistance. Insulin’s job is to move energy from the blood stream into the cells of our body; however when cells have too much energy they become resistant to insulin. Insulin resistance leads to extra energy in the blood stream and we can see this in measuring your “fats” or triglyercerides as well as glucose (sugar) in the blood stream. When glucose begins to rise because of insulin resistance the pancreas makes more insulin. Excess insulin and insulin resistance leads to inflammation and blood vessel damage. 


T2D is defined by elevated blood glucose and differs from type 1 DM in that the pancreas is still able to produce insulin. T2D typically presents in adulthood and is a combination of the body not listening to insulin (insulin resistance) followed by the pancreas not making enough insulin to overcome this insulin resistance.  T2D is a combination of high glucose and inflammation that can lead to complications of the large arteries of the brain and heart or small arteries of the eyes, kidney, and nerves.

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

NAFLD is defined by excess fat in the liver. NAFLD can lead to inflammation and will soon be the leading cause of cirrhosis (scarring of the liver). NAFLD is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, T2D, and other health complications. Certain nutrients such as high fructose corn syrup found in sugar sweetened beverages are known to increase fat content in the liver.


PCOS is the most common cause of infertility in women due to shifts in hormone production leading to lack of ovulation. It is associated with obesity, elevated insulin, and insulin resistance. PCOS also imposes future risk of developing T2D and possibly heart disease.


Obesity is defined as a higher than normal level of adiposity (fat). People living with obesity may have excellent fitness, function, quality of life, and metabolic parameters so obesity in itself may not a problem outside of the stigma and bias society has created. For many individuals, living with excess weight is associated with type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, PCOS, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and increased risk of several types of cancer. Obesity may also impair function in breathing or mobility.


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